Queen Elizabeth II

Queen Elizabeth II

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Queen Elizabeth II
Elizabeth Alexandra Mary
April 21, 1926
George VI and Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon
Windsor
February 6, 1952 aged 25 years
June 2, 1953 at Westminster Abbey
Philip Mountbatten
Prince Charles, Princess Anne, Prince Andrew and Prince Edward
EARLY LIFE OF QUEEN ELIZABETH II
Elizabeth Alexandra Mary was born on 21 April 1926 at 17 Bruton Street, Mayfair, London. At the time of birth her paternal grandfather, King George V was the King. Her father, Prince Albert, Duke of York (later King George VI), was the second son of the King. Her mother, Elizabeth, Duchess of York (later Queen Elizabeth), was the youngest daughter of Scottish aristocrat Claude Bowes-Lyon, 14th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne. Queen Elizabeth and her only sibling, Princess Margaret (born in 1930) were educated at home under the supervision of their mother and their governess, Marion Crawford, who was casually known as “Crawfie”. Crawford published a biography of Elizabeth and Margaret’s childhood years entitled “The Little Princesses” in 1950, much to the dismay of the royal family.
OFFICIAL DUTIES & THE REIGN
Elizabeth Alexandra Mary assumed official duties at young age of 16. During World War II she served in the Auxiliary Territorial Service, and by an amendment to the Regency Act she became a state counselor on her 18th birthday. On the death of George VI in 1952 she succeeded to the throne while in Kenya with her husband and was crowned on 2 June 1953.
THE CROWN
The reign of Queen Elizabeth II since 1952 has spanned a period of rapid and occasionally turbulent change. Britain’s position in the world, her economy, and the very shape and structures of society have all been transformed and many traditional institutions have suffered in the process. Through all this, the path of the Crown has been marked out by The Queen herself, in a prolonged display of unwavering devotion to Duty and quiet pragmatism which has met a nationally-felt need, and has won her the respect and affection of her peoples. As hereditary head of State for Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and Head of the Commonwealth, she has symbolic and formal functions and duties but no direct powers. She is an embodiment of national identity and continuity and, with her family, performs countless formalities to mark events in the lives of individuals and communities and provides valuable patronage for innumerable charities.
THE FAMILY
Supported by Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, to whom she was married on 20 November 1947, The Queen is head of a large family. The first child of the royal marriage and the current heir to the throne is Prince Charles, the Prince of Wales, who was born on 14 November 1948 and was invested as Prince of Wales at Caernarvon Castle on 1 July 1969. He married Lady Diana Spencer ( Princess Diana ) on 29 July 1981; two sons were born to the marriage, Prince William, born 21 June 1982 and Prince Henry (Harry), born 15 September 1984. However, the marriage broke down amid widely-publicised bitterness, and a divorce followed. These troubles, together with the divorces of Princess Anne and the Duke of York, were seen by some to diminish the monarchy in public esteem. The death of Diana, Princess of Wales on 31 August 1997 in a car crash in Paris unleashed a wave of hysteria stirred up by the media, and the family had to suffer relentless intrusion by the world’s press into their lives.
DIAMOND JUBILEE & BEYOND
In 2012 she opened the London Olympics and celebrated her Diamond Jubilee of 60 years on the throne. The Prince of Wales, after suffering a period of unpopularity, has shown resilience and willingness to meet the public half-way in its new mood. His long-established concern for the disadvantaged sections of society, and support of a ‘green’ environmental issues, has enabled him to meet on common ground many who might be put off by grandeur and pomp, while his evident devotion to his two sons Prince William and Prince Harry and grandchildren Prince George and Princess Charlotte has won him a real measure of respect. Initially unpopular his wife Camilla has shown herself to be capable in her support. Debate about the future of the monarchy continues, but the Royal Family has shown itself willing to accept evolutionary change including the Queen’s decision to pay tax, changes being made to the Civil List, and the opening of Buckingham Palace to the public to help fund the restoration of Windsor Castle. On 10th September 2015 Queen Elizabeth II became the longest ever reigning British monarch surpassing the 63 years 7 months reigned by her great-great-grandmother Queen Victoria.

Timeline for Queen Elizabeth II

Historical Timline for Queen Elizabeth from 1952 – Present.

1952 Elizabeth accedes to the throne on the death of her father, George VI.
1952 World’s first jet airliner passenger service inaugurated by BOAC in Comet I aircraft
1953 Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay climb Mount Everest just before Coronation Day
1953 Francis Crick and James Watson unravel the mystery of DNA
1953 – 1954 Queen Elizabeth and Prince Philip embark on a 6 month world tour including Australia and New Zealand
1955 Winston Churchill resigns as Prime Minister and is succeeded by Anthony Eden.
1955 Laws restricting the burning of coal and establishing smokeless zones bring an end to London’s notorious fogs
1956 Anglo-French forces invade Egypt after the nationalization of the Suez Canal.
1957 Harold Macmillan becomes Prime Minister.
1957 The Gold Coast becomes independent as Ghana, the first British colony in Africa to receive its independence.
1957 Queen Elizabeth addresses the United Nations and opens the 23rd Canadian Parliament.
1959 Oil is discovered in the North Sea.
1959 Queen Elizabeth tours Canada and the United States.
1960 Harold Macmillan becomes Prime Minister makes ‘winds of change’ speech in South Africa.
1960 Union of South Africa withdraws from the Commonwealth.
1962 Jamaica gains independence.
1963 Alec Douglas-Hume replaces Harold Macmillan as the Prime Minister.
1964 Labour government of Harold Wilson takes office.
1966 Aberfan disaster leaves 116 children dead.
1967 Capital punishment abolished in the UK for murder, and one year later for all crimes.
1969 Prince Charles is invested as Prince of Wales.
1969 Troubles break out in the North of Ireland.
1970 Edward Heath becomes Prime Minister.
1973 Britain joins the European Community.
1974 Miners strike brings down Heath Government. Harold Wilson returns as Prime Minister.
1977 Celebration of the Silver Jubilee of the Queens accession.
1979 Margaret Thatcher succeeds James Callaghan, becoming Britain’s first woman Prime Minister.
1981 Prince Charles marries Lady Diana Spencer in St. Paul’s Cathedral.
1982 Unemployment in Britain tops three million.
1982 Britain goes to war with Argentina over control of the Falkland Islands.
1982 Pope John Paul II is first reigning pope to visit the UK.
1986 Queen Elizabeth II celebrates 60th birthday.
1989 Poll tax is introduced amid widespread protest.
1989 Fall of the Berlin Wall. End of the ‘Cold War’.
1990 Margaret Thatcher resigns as Prime Minister after 11 years and is succeeded by John Major.
1992 Princess Anne and Mark Phillips divorce. Windsor castle suffers severe fire damage.
1993 European Parliament comes into force.
1994 Opening of the Channel Tunnel between England and France.
1996 Both the Prince and Princess of Wales, and the Duke and Duchess of York divorce.
1997 Tony Blair becomes Prime Minister and ends 18 years of Conservative government.
1997 Hong Kong reverts to China after 155 years of British rule.
1997 Diana Princess of Wales dies in Paris car crash
1998 Good Friday agreement in Northern Ireland.
1998 Scotland and Wales vote for their own Assemblies.
1999 Edward, Earl of Wessex, marries Sophie Rhys-Jones.
2000 Queen Mother celebrates her 100th birthday.
2001 Great Britain participated in War in Afghanistan against Taliban and Terrorist.
2002 Queen Elizabeth II marks her Golden Jubilee of 50 years of rule. Deaths of Queen Mother and Princess Margaret.
2003 British and US forces invade Iraq and topple Saddam Hussein.
2005 Prince Charles marries his second wife Camilla Parker-Bowles and she is given the title Duchess of Cornwall.
2006 Queen Elizabeth II celebrates her 80th birthday.
2007 Tony Blair resigns as Prime Minister.
2007 Queen Elizabeth II and her husband Prince Philip celebrate 60 years of marriage.
2007 Queen Elizabeth II becomes the oldest ever reigning British monarch.
2008 World wide banking crisis. Government has to bail out two major British banks.
2010 David Cameron becomes Prime Minister.
2011 Prince William marries Catherine Middleton. They become Duke and Duchess of Cambridge.
2012 Queen Elizabeth II celebrates her Diamond Jubilee of 60 years since her accession to the throne.
2012 Queen Elizabeth II opens the London 2012 Olympic Games.
2013 Birth of Prince George, son of the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge.
2014 Scottish voters reject proposal by the Scottish National Party to leave the United Kingdom.
2015 Birth of Princess Charlotte, daughter of the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge.
2015 Queen Elizabeth II becomes the longest ever reigning British monarch surpassing her great-great-grandmother Queen Victoria.
2016 Queen Elizabeth II celebrates her 90th birthday.
2016 The United Kingdom votes to leave the European Union.
2016 David Cameron resigns as Prime Minister and is replaced by Theresa May.